• Losses in refrigeration have been reduced historically by a factor 5, from the levels at the end of the 80's to the best available technology in class A+ appliances (fig 3).
• Energy use for individual lighting applications can be reduced by a factor 5 or more. Modern lighting solutions are 50-100 times more efficient than candles.
• Distribution transformers, one of the most efficient machines ever designed by man, can still reduce losses by a factor 3-4 through the use of amorphous iron
• In motor driven systems (pumps, compressors, fans, washing machines, electric trains), it is possible to reduce losses by 30% on average.
But the above examples just provide a static perspective, whereas electro technologies sometimes have more dramatic impacts at the systems level.
Because of its high quality, using electricity instead other energy carriers can have a boosting effect to save primary energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, even when including conversion losses in power generation:
• The use of high speed electric trains instead of air transport reduces primary energy use per passenger.km by a factor 3 and CO2 emissions by a factor 4.
• Using electric trains instead of diesel trains reduces CO2 emissions by a factor 4 and primary energy use by a factor 2 .
• Electric vehicles are twice as efficient as vehicles with internal combustion engines.
• Efficient heat pumps, drawing heat from the underground require 20-40 kWh of electricity to supply 100 kWh of heat; they typically reduce final energy demand for heating by at least a factor 3 and primary energy demand by at least 25%.
• With induction heaters for cooking, 90% of (final) energy goes in the pan, compared to 55% for gas-fired cooking.